*Article: “Who are the Albanians?…”

Balkan geographic map

Vladislav B. Sotirovic, “Who are the Albanians? The Illyrian Anthroponomy and the Ethnogenesis of the Albanians – A Challenge to Regional Security”, Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies, Vol. 26, 2012, № 1−2, ISSN 0742-3330, 2015, Slavica Publishers, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, pp. 45−76

Monah na rusevinama crkve

Share

22 comments on “*Article: “Who are the Albanians?…”

  1. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 15:49

    DOBRO VECE GOSPODINE … HARD ISSUE BUT LET”S TRY TO RISOLVE SOMETHING Linguistic influences

    The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian come from Doric Greek, ….ANCIENT GREEK LOANS…. [12] whereas the strongest influence came from Latin. …. CLASSICAL LATIN LOANS (2nd CENTURY BCE -5nd CENTURY CE) ….. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE.[13] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large-scale palatalization.

    A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries CE, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the “o-a” shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century CE, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania, where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century CE). Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time.
    Latin influence

    Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin’s influence on Albanian and claimed “the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus”.[14] Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian “qiqer” from Latin cicer (meaning chickpeas), “qytet” from civitas (meaning city), “peshk” from piscis (meaning fish) and “shigjetë” from sagitta (meaning arrow). The hard pronunciations of Latin ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888)[15] and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914)[16] later corroborated this. Meyer noted the similarity between the Albanian verbs shqipoj and shqiptoj (both meaning to enunciate) and the Latin word excipio (meaning to welcome). Therefore, he believed that the word Shqiptar (meaning Albanian) was derived from shqipoj, which in turn was derived from the Latin word excipio. Johann Georg von Hahn, an Austrian linguist, previously proposed the same theory in 1854.[17]

    Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:[18]

    Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: “aurum” > “ar” ; “gaudium” > “gaz” ; “laurus” > “lar”. But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: “causa” > “kafshë” ; “laud” > “lavd”.
    Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: “pōmum” > “pemë” ; “hōra” > “herë”. An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian “ne”, PIE *oḱtō + suffix -ti- became Albanian “tetë” etc.
    Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: “cubitus” > “kub” ; “medicus” > “mjek” ; “paludem” > V. Latin “padule” > “pyll”. An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: “paganus” > “pagan” ; “plaga” > “plagë” etc.
    Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: “vitius” > “ves” ; “ratio” > “arsye” ; “radius” > “rreze” ; “facies” > “faqe” ; “socius” > “shoq” etc.

  2. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 15:49

    Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that:

    Some 85 Latin words have survived in Albanian but not (as inherited) in any Romance language. A few examples include bubulcus > bujk, hibernalia > mërrajë, sarcinarius > shelqëror, trifurcus > tërfurk, accipiter > skifter, musconea > mushkonjë, chersydrus > kuçedër, spleneticum > shpretkë, solanum > shullë.[19]
    151 Albanian words of Latin origin were not inherited in Romanian. A few examples include Albanian mik from Latin amicus, or armik from inimicus, arsye from rationem, bekoj from benedicere, qelq from calix (calicis), kështjellë from castellum, qind from centum, gjel from gallus, gjymtyrë from iunctura, mjek from medicus, rrjetë from rete, shpresoj from sperare, vullnet from voluntas (voluntatis).[20]
    Some Albanian church terminology have phonetic features which demonstrate their very early borrowing from Latin. A few examples include Albanian altar from Latin altare, engjëll from angelus, bekoj from benedicere,i krishterë from christianus, kryq from crux (crucis), kishë from ecclesia, ipeshkv from episcopus, ungjill from evangelium, mallkoj from maledicere, meshë from missa, murg from monacus, “pagan” from paganus.[21]

    Other authors[22] have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BCE, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albanian e vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga, meaning “belly band, saddle girth”, and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân, meaning “old”.

    Albanian, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Irish and Welsh are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which have undergone the sound changes associated with the languages.

  3. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 15:55

    Vocabulary and contacts

    Although Albanian has a host of borrowings from its neighbours, it shows exceedingly few evidences of contact with ancient Greek; one such is the Gheg mokën (Tosk mokër) “millstone,” from the Greek mēkhanē´. Obviously close contacts with the Romans gave many Latin loans—e.g., mik “friend” from Latin amicus; këndoj “sing, read” from cantāre. Furthermore, such loanwords in Albanian attest to the similarities in development of the Latin spoken in the Balkans and of Romanian, a Balkan Romance tongue. For example, Latin palūdem “swamp” became padūlem and then pădure in Romanian and pyll in Albanian, both with a modified meaning, “forest.”http://www.britannica.com/topic/Albanian-language

  4. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:04

    A SMALL CHALLENGE CAN U

    FIND ANY ALBANIAN ETYMOLOGY OF THIS DACIAN WORDS???…………..DACIAN OR THRACIAN NOTHING TO DO WITH ALBANIAN, AND THAT IS A LINGUSTIC FACT !!!

  5. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:05

    Andena/Andes/Andio/Antis – personal Illyrian names based on a root and- or ant-, found in both the southern and the Dalmatian-Pannonian (including modern Bosnia and Herzegovina) onomastic provinces; cf. Alb. andë (northern Albanian dialect, or Gheg) and ëndë (southern Albanian dialect or Tosk) “appetite, pleasure, desire, wish”.[26]
    aran “field”; cf. Alb. arë; plural ara[27]
    Ardiaioi/Ardiaei, name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. ardhja “arrival” or “descent”, connected to hardhi “vine-branch, grape-vine”, with a sense development similar to Germanic *stamniz, meaning both tree stalk and tribe, lineage. However, the insufficiency of this theory is that so far there is no certainty as to the historical or etymological development of either ardhja/hardhi or Ardiaioi, as with many other words.[26]
    Bindo/Bindus, an Illyrian deity from Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina; cf. Alb. bind “to convince” or “to make believe”, përbindësh “monster”.[28]
    Bilia “daughter”; cf. Alb. bijë, dial. bilë[29]
    bounon, “hutt, cottage”; cf. Alb bun[30]
    Barba- “swamp”, a toponym from Metubarbis; possibly related to Alb. bërrakë “swampy soil”[31]
    can- “dog”; related to Alb. qen[31]
    Daesitiates, a name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. dash “ram”, corresponding contextually with south Slavonic dasa “ace”, which might represent a borrowing and adaptation from Illyrian (or some other ancient language).[26]
    mal “mountain”; cf. Alb. mal[32]
    bardi “white”; cf. Alb. bardhë[33]
    drenis “deer”; cf. Alb. dre, dreni[34]
    delme “sheep”; cf. Alb. dele, Gheg dialect delme[35]
    dard “Dardania”; ostensibly connected with cf. Alb. dardhë, “pear”[36]
    drakoina “supper”; cf. Alb. darke, dreke[37]
    Hyllus (the name of an Illyrian king); cf. Alb. yll (hyll in some northern dialects) “star”, also Alb. hyj “god”[37]
    sīca “dagger”; cf. Alb. thikë or thika “knife”[38]
    Ulc- “wolf” (pln. Ulcinium); cf. Alb. ujk “wolf”, ulk(Northern Dialect)[39]
    brisa “husk of grapes”; cf. Alb. bërsí “lees, dregs; mash” (< PA *brutiā)[31]
    loúgeon "pool"; cf. Alb. lag, legen "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" (< PA *lauga), lëgatë "pool" (< PA *leugatâ), lakshte "dew" (< PA laugista)[40]
    mag- "great"; cf. Alb. i madh "big , great"[31]
    mantía "bramblebush"; Old and dial. Alb. mandë "berry, mulberry" (Mod. Alb. mën, man)[citation needed]
    Ragusa-Ragusium "grape"; cf. Proto-Alb. ragusha (Mod. Alb. rrush)[37]
    rhinos "fog, mist"; cf. Old Alb. ren "cloud" (Mod. Alb. re, rê) (< PA *rina)[41]
    Vendum "place"; cf. Proto-Alb. wen-ta (Mod. Alb. vend)[37]

  6. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:06

    Well i just read and this publications from
    Prof. Djordje Jankovic, Ph.D
    Faculty of Philosophy
    Belgrade Univesity

    Middle Ages in Noel Malcolm’s Kosovo,
    A Short History and Real Facts , the first part that really astonished me was this…
    The place-name “Ulcinj” he translates with the Albanian word for “wolf” – “ujk”, “ulk”, though it’s a nonsense to name a sea coast town after a forest beast. Finally, he links the name of “Dardania” to the Albanian “dardhe” – “pear” (p. 32), though a few pages later he links it to a cheese perculiar for Dardania (p. 40 … well i find a list of illyrian toponyms with explained albanian meaning , etymology …
    Lopsica
    Gissa i., Cissa
    Crepsa
    *Maluntum ,
    “Ad Male ,
    ” DIMALLUM ( southern albania ,alb “The two mountains” )
    Ulcinium Ulca fl.,
    Ulcea pal”,
    Ulcirus Mons “,
    Ulcisia CASTRUM (alb Keshtjella e ULKESHES “female of the wolf”)
    Aquae Balisae
    Andetrium
    Bistua Vetus,
    Bistua Nova
    Bariduum
    Burnum (Burnistae ” alb Burnisht)
    Diluntum
    *ad zizium
    Ludrum
    Scardona
    Delminium
    Cocconis
    Chertobalus
    Lentulum
    Sala
    Bustricius
    Cibalae
    Lugio
    Valdasus
    BRINDIA
    BULSINIO
    THERANDA
    CODRION
    ETC ETC without mention the anthroponyms like with the nucleus Bard* ( alb White )

    Bardyllis ”
    Bardibalus*
    Bardus*
    Bardiae”
    The most impressive toponym are , strangely those with the nucleus ULC* and we have i different versions like

  7. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:06

    but before ..http://indogermanisch.org/pokorny-etymologisches-woerterbuch/u%CC%AFl%CC%A5k%CA%B7os.htm
    http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/etymology.cgi?single=1&basename=%2Fdata%2Fie%2Fpiet&text_number=1252&root=config

    CASTRA ULCISIA * ( eng” The castle of the wolf ” alb “Keshtjella e ULKESHES ” |the female of the wolf| )… ULCISIA =ULKESHA
    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kastell_Szentendre
    http://www.nemzetijelkepek.hu/onkormanyzat-szentendre_en.shtml
    In the first century AD, Szentendre was dwelt by the Romans; by the end of the century their military camp town called Ulcisia Castra (Wolf Castle) had emerged, around which a well-built civilian settlement came into being. However, by the time of the Magyar conquest, not many of these Roman buildings survived.
    http://en.cityzeum.com/p/szetendre
    Szetendre – Budapest

    Szetendre is a beautiful village just a short distance from Budapest. It dates back well over a thousand years, occupied by the Romans, who called it Ulcisia Castra, meaning “”Wolf Castle” etc etc
    ULCIRUS MONS * (eng “The Mountains of the wolfs” alb ” Malet e ULQERVE” , in plural ) ULCIR =ULQER
    http://imperium.ahlfeldt.se/places/41974.html
    https://books.google.it/books?id=JZLW4-wba7UC&pg=PA577&lpg=PA577&dq=ULCIRUS+++MONS&source=bl&ots=jBvRbTYQ1s&sig=iq2LXCDI1WpeowfLJdu5t4Q6xfQ&hl=it&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjOiPGFm7jJAhUGtxQKHZ3DD3AQ6AEIPjAD#v=onepage&q=ULCIRUS%20%20%20MONS&f=false
    ULCEA pal*
    ULCA fl*
    ULCINIUM ( In the singulair form of the word ) ULC=ULK
    Now about the case of Ulcinj grad ..Name

    Early historian Livy (59 BC–AD 17) mentioned it,[1] as did Pliny the Elder (23–79),[2] who mentioned it as Olcinium, its old name Colchinium, “founded by [settlers from] Colchis” (Olchinium quod antea Colchinium dictum est a Colchis conditum).[2] Ptolemy (90–168) mentions the city as Greek Oulkinion (Ουλκίνιον).[3] The name, through Late (Vulgar) Roman, became Slavic Ulcinj, Italian: Dulcigno (pronounced [dultʃiɲo]) and Turkish: Ülgün.

    The etymological origin of the toponym is unclear.[2] Austrian geographer Wilhelm Tomaschek (1841–1901), in 1880, connected it to the Albanian word ulk and ulkise, meaning “wolf” and “she-wolf”,[2] now supported by Eqrem Çabej, Rymut, Mayer, Eichler, Malcolm and others.[4][5][6][7][8]

    In this case the name ULCINIUM is just a ILLYRIAN adaptation of the original GREEK name COLCHIS ….. that is why the WOLFS don”t live in the SEA SHORE !!!

    I THINK THAT DJORDJE JANKOVIC IS WRONG !!!

  8. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:12

    here are some comments about “The anthroponymy of Azali” of Dragana Grbic
    Hi i just take a look to the anthroponymy of the azali,just incredible , illuminative.. let start
    DASAS ,DASIUS,DASMEN ( well i gas that u know well the albanian etymology of this name surname, if not check to google translate )
    https://www.facebook.com/search/top/?q=dashi%20lika&init=mag_glass&tas=0.8998283534859557&search_first_focus=1448978253300

    https://www.facebook.com/search/top/?q=dash%20%20lika&init=mag_glass&tas=0.4735607888603046&search_first_focus=1448978253300
    LICCAIUS , LICCAI ( Well above u have some examples , that name surname LIKA,LIKAJ, is one of the most typical albanianarbanasi anthroponym a nice example of forced islamization of albanians of Prizren around 1500 ad( i am a atheist so dont worry) Janissary Mustafa son of Vukča, Hasan Petko, Ahmed
    Lika, Hasan Lika and Mahmud
    Lika, sons of Lika Bard,
    TRASIUS , TRASANIUS ( alb “TRASH, TRASHI, TRASHANIK” the fat , the big one )
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenc_Trashi i know this guy …

    BUSTURO , BUSTURIS the explanition is from u …*bussu- ‘lip, kiss’; EDPC 84–85. u forget to say that it is a siptarski jezik meaning …
    LASCIUS , LASCI — RIU 731: Madena Lasci that is cool Emoticon smile ( alb LASHI, BALASHI ,LASHKO the blond haired one )
    https://www.facebook.com/search/results.php?q=Ilir+Balashi&init=public
    ” the little blond” LASHI vogel https://www.facebook.com/lashi.92?fref=ts

    Bard Fachemiri ( a southern albanian lord of 14 century ” FACHEMIRI ” eng ” good face ” )from “John Musachi: Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty”.
    https://www.facebook.com/search/top/?init=quick&q=syziu%20&tas=0.5766827669221068
    SYZIU*, SIZIU ( alb the black( lat NIGRO) eye ) hmm what coincidence Siusius — RMD 430: Nigro Siusi f. Azalo. Not Keltish definitely….
    SIMIRASI-us , SIMIRINUS ( remember the albanci lord above the “good face ” try to make the connection …Simirasi ( us? ) — RIU 713 (crtež): Trasanu – f. Mesto nalaza: Piliscsév.
    DAG 1303 (DELAMARRE 2004, 276); Simirinus (DAG 1071) .NOT Keltish definite

    BATO ( no need for comment “Bellum Batonianum ” together with Bardyllis one of the most representative illyrian names what is amazing here is these Bato — RIU 689. Mesto nalaza: Környe. Natpis pripada vojniku: Bato
    Dasentis | filius an(norum) XXV exp|lorator Dases | pater p(osuit) h(ic)
    s(itus) e(st). so his full name is BATO DASI* great …
    COUCO (Coucus, Cucus) i am not sure but in albanian there are namesurname , toponyms ,tribes ,clan chiefs etc for example KUKA family medieval nobility , kapedans of Gjergj Kastrioti , or KUKAJ , KUKAQI , KUKES ( The Town an area )https://www.facebook.com/search/results.php?q=Ilir+Kuka&init=public
    VARZA Varzia — RIU 714: Varzia Licai f(ilia) i am not sure but to sounds like VAIZA ” the daughter , the girl , in this case of Licai f(ilia)”
    CUSIO(Cusa Cusius, Cusaia Couso) it sounds like KUSHI, KUSHO ,KUSHAJ https://www.facebook.com/rkushaj?fref=ts
    etc etc VERY INTERESTING

  9. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:27

    Y-Dna

    The three haplogroups most strongly associated with Albanian people (E-V13, R1b and J2b) are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene
    epoch. Within the Balkans, all three have a local peak in Kosovo, and
    are overall more common among Albanians, Greeks and Vlachs than Slavs
    (albeit with some representation among Bulgarians). R1b has much higher
    frequencies in areas of Europe further to the West, while E1b1b and J2
    are widespread at lower frequencies throughout Europe and also have very
    large frequencies among Greeks, Italians, Macedonians and Bulgarians.

    The distribution of E-V13 in Europe

    Y haplogroup E1b1b (E-M35) in the modern Balkan population is dominated by its sub-clade E1b1b1a (E-M78) and specifically by the most common European sub-clade of E-M78, E-V13.[99]
    Most E-V13 in Europe and elsewhere descend from a common ancestor who
    lived in the late Mesolithic or Neolithic, possibly in the Balkans. The
    current distribution of this lineage might be the result of several
    demographic expansions from the Balkans, such as that associated with
    the Neolithic revolution, the Balkan Bronze Age, and more recently,
    during the Roman era during the so-called “rise of Illyrican soldiery”.[99][100][101][102][103][104]

    Y haplogroup J
    in the modern Balkans is mainly represented by the sub-clade J2b (also
    known as J-M12 or J-M102 for example). Like E-V13, J2b is spread
    throughout Europe with a seeming centre and origin near Albania.[99][100][102][104]
    Its relatives within the J2 clade are also found in high frequencies
    elsewhere in Southern Europe, especially Greece and Italy, where it is
    more diverse. J2b itself is fairly rare outside of ethnic Albanian
    territory (where it hovers around 14-16%), but can also be found at
    significant frequencies among Romanians (8.9%)[105] and Greeks (8.7%) [100]

    Haplogroup R1b is common all over Europe but especially common on the western Atlantic coast of Europe,
    and is also found in the Middle East, the Caucasus and some parts of
    Africa. In Europe including the Balkans, it tends to be less common in
    Slavic speaking areas, where R1a is often more common. It shows similar
    frequencies among Albanians and Greeks at around 20% of the male
    population, but is much less common in elsewhere in the Balkans.[104]

    Common in the Balkans but not specifically associated with Albania and the Albanian language are I-M423 and R1a-M17:

    Y haplogroup I is found mostly in Europe, and may have been there since before the LGM.
    Several of its sub-clades are found in significant amounts in the
    Balkans. The specific I sub-clade which has attracted most discussion in
    Balkan studies currently referred to as I2a2, defined by SNP M423[106][107] This clade has higher frequencies to the north of the Albanophone area, in Dalmatia and Bosnia.[104]

    Haplogroup R1a is common in Central and Eastern Europe (and is also common in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent). In the Balkans, it is strongly associated with Slavic areas.[104]

    A study by Peričić et al. in 2005[108] found the following Y-Dna haplogroup frequencies in Albanians from Kosovo
    with haplogroup E1b1b and its subclades representing 47.4% of the total
    (note that Albanians from other regions do not show quite as high a
    percentage of E1b1b):

    N
    E-M78*
    E-V13
    E-M81
    E-M123
    J2b
    I1
    I2a2
    R1b
    R1a
    P

    114
    1.75%
    43.85%
    0.90%
    0.90%
    16.70%
    5.31%
    2.65%
    21.10%
    4.42%
    1.77%

    A study by Battaglia et al. in 2008[100] found the following haplogroup distributions among Albanians in Albania itself:

    N
    E-M78*
    E-V13
    G
    I1
    I2a1
    I2b
    J1
    J2a
    J2b
    R1a
    R1b

    55
    1.8%
    23.6%
    1.8%
    3.6%
    14.5%
    3.6%
    3.6%
    5.4%
    14.5%
    9.1%
    18.2%

    The same study by Battaglia et al. (2008) also found the following distributions among Albanians in Macedonia:

    N
    E-M78*
    E-V13
    E-M123
    G
    I1
    I2a
    I2a1
    I2a2
    J1
    J2a1b
    J2b
    R1a
    R1b

    64
    1.6%
    34.4%
    3.1%
    1.6%
    4.7%
    1.6%
    9.4%
    1.6%
    6.3%
    1.6%
    14.1%
    1.6%
    18.8%

  10. Arber Ibrahimi 2015-12-04 16:28

    mtDna

    Another study of old Balkan populations and their genetic affinities
    with current European populations was done in 2004, based on mitochondrial DNA on the skeletal remains of some old Thracian populations from SE of Romania, dating from the Bronze and Iron Age.[109]
    This study was during excavations of some human fossil bones of 20
    individuals dating about 3200–4100 years, from the Bronze Age, belonging
    to some cultures such as Tei, Monteoru and Noua
    were found in graves from some necropoles SE of Romania, namely in
    Zimnicea, Smeeni, Candesti, Cioinagi-Balintesti, Gradistea-Coslogeni and
    Sultana-Malu Rosu; and the human fossil bones and teeth of 27
    individuals from the early Iron Age, dating from the 10th to 7th
    centuries BC from the Hallstatt Era (the Babadag culture), were found extremely SE of Romania near the Black Sea coast, in some settlements from Dobrogea, namely: Jurilovca, Satu Nou, Babadag, Niculitel and Enisala-Palanca.[109] After comparing this material with the present-day European population, the authors concluded:

    Computing the frequency of common point mutations of the present-day
    European population with the Thracian population has resulted that the
    Italian (7.9%), the Albanian (6.3%) and the Greek (5.8%) have shown a
    bias of closer genetic kinship with the Thracian individuals than the
    Romanian and Bulgarian individuals (only 4.2%).[109]

Comments are closed.